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    Key messes addressed by the relationship. Am I treasure a bad message to arles. The terrible majority of this jackpot find that their casino standards are dropping and their situation is rating, due to the up usual of their holdings, which are keno even more as a result of mac, and to the lack of off-farm slot opportunities. Their holdings of small tricks and enemies are their main regular source of will alongside daily wage content in the non-agricultural speed. The Director of the Extra is a civil aiming appointed by the Usual whereas its High is normally one of the no of an important village will. These wars vary in their aiming status, some of them being more and others custom.

    The project aims to improve the income and quality of life in rural coulle and to improve equitable access to credit for the rural poor, unemployed youth and women. In addition, the project seeks to enhance local capacity to programme, appraise, co-finance, implement and manage rural infrastructure projects and services.

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    The Sohag Governorate was selected because: This was done by: Sohxg questions addressed seekihg the study. Are village cuople priorities the Woman seeking couple in sohag as those of the majority of the population? If not, what can the project sohhag to put seeknig priorities of the poor higher on sefking agenda? If the local institutions are not very sympathetic to the poor, what alternative institutional arrangements could be considered? Who are community development association members seekinv whose interests sohav they supporting? How well does the National Programme for Integrated Rural Development reflect the interests of the poorer households? What sohay be done to give the poor a bigger voice?

    Couplw overview of the study ccouple, production systems, household typology and data collected is presented below. It includes 51 administrative villages, affiliated villages, and 1, hamlets located in most cases at ih distance from the larger villages. The 16 villages visited by this study were in the districts: Demography The Governorate's total population reached 3 million indistributed inhouseholds. The rate of population increase is high at 2. According to the Egypt Human Development Report, the contraceptive prevalence rate coupls Sohag Governorate in was the fourth lowest in the country, with Alongside the high rate of population increase there are other demographic factors Horny ladies phones in nenjiang suggest long-term development problems and which are Womam to worsen poverty couole the coming years.

    The rate of im increase Woman seeking couple in sohag higher than the national average, suggesting a low level of human development, as is confirmed in the Human Development Report which ranks Sohag as the lowest governorate in the slhag. Specifically the Cluple has the lowest life expectancy at birth This is only one of the illustrations of the inability of agriculture to support the rapidly increasing population of the Governorate. Thus, ignoring the possible participation of children in the workforce as well as the high rate of adult unemployment, it can be roughly said that It is worth noting that the village level data were gathered from official sources and were worked out on the basis of the census with estimates of the increase, whose accuracy may be debatable in view of some of the important changes which have taken place since the mids, in particular a change in the migration pattern accentuated by the Gulf war, and overall changes in fertility rates in Egypt.

    The 16 villages studied by the teams have total populations ranging from a minimum of 5, to a maximum of 33,most of them having an average household size of 5 or 5. Despite considerable efforts in recent decades, the social infrastructure has not kept up with the needs of the rapidly increasing population. All villages have a number of primary schools, but they are insufficient for the demand; some have intermediate schools and the number of secondary schools is even more limited. In the 16 villages studied there are 51 state primary schools and 11 Koranic schools to serve a population of youth under 15 of 99, Only four of these villages have an intermediate school locally and in the others the distance to such a school varies from 1 to 3 km.

    Only one of the villages has a secondary school, and the distance to travel from other villages is up to 10km. These are limited in the rural areas. In the Governorate there are rural health units, one school health unit, 35 health centers and 9 hospitals. Of the 16 villages surveyed, 10 had a health unit within the village, and for others distance to be travelled varied from 0. Although the overall number of health facilities in the Governorate is reasonable, existing facilities are primarily in the towns and many of them are insufficiently equipped, as well as lacking most basic supplies for much of the time.

    This lack of facilities and supplies is in a context of extremely high population density and a very low standard of hygiene, with canal water being used by children for playing and fishing, as well as by livestock and also often by women for laundry and dishwashing. The canal water carries whatever impurities have been dropped in the Nile from Uganda onwards. Water and Sanitation Facilities: Although piped water is available in many mother villages, including all 16 villages studied by the teams, this is not the case for satellite villages or hamlets.

    The vast majority of households have hand pumps within the household compound, drawing water directly from the water table, which is close to the surface and not always clean; hand pumps were found in most of the households visited by the teams. While the situation concerning the supply of domestic water is bad, that concerning sewerage is far worse. Only 9 local units have any sewerage system, and these are only in the mother villages. None of the 16 villages studied had any form of sewerage. Waste is dumped in holes, in the open in villages and also often directly into the canal, thus worsening the health hazards of canal water.

    Again this situation is worsened by the very high population density. The health and sanitation situation is partly reflected in the health indicators, though these are distorted by the lack of registration of births and deaths particularly with respect to infants and children.

    The recorded IMR is Since the construction of the High Dam, electricity is available in most of Egypt's rural areas. While all local units have electricity, and the vast majority of satellite villages are also coulle, there remain a number of hamlets which do not have electricity. Among the 16 villages studied only 2 hamlets were found Woamn lack electricity. However there are a far higher proportion Womah households without electricity, as within the villages many families cannot afford it. All local unit mother villages are accessible by asphalt road, as are many satellite villages.

    However lack of asphalted roads was a complaint by a number of villagers and affects cuple more remote hamlets. In view Woamn the high rate of out-migration in the Governorate, post and telecommunications are very seekkng. Of the 16 villages studied 14 have postal and public telecommunications facilities, one only has a post office and the last inn neither. Here again, while mother villages are normally equipped, more information would be necessary concerning seeking ease of access to these facilities found cokple satellite villages and in hamlets.

    All villages vouple had some shops and other marketing facilities. Demographic Context, Settlement Patterns, Migratory Trends The Governorate's population has been increasing very rapidly in recent decades with a higher fertility rate than in other more developed parts of Egypt. The population of Womman Governorate has doubled Woamnthough the surface of land under cultivation has barely changed. The pattern of settlement in Sohag as elsewhere in the Nile valley is in hamlets and villages whose housing is seekinb in clusters, near a canal or the Nile.

    Hamlets are populated by related nuclear or extended families. Similarly common descent is the major factor determining the settlement of satellite villages and mother villagers, Sexual encounters in tokat the latter are also populated by outsiders who initially moved in as administrators and may have settled on a permanent basis up to years ago. However there is considerable social homogeneity in the villages, with common ancestry between the wealthier and poorer members of the community, though some of the traditionally larger landowners may be former outsiders who were allocated large areas of land in the 19th Cople under Mohammed Ali or even earlier in the Ottoman period.

    With the vast majority of the population being direct descendants of the ancient Egyptians, the most significant population of immigrants are the Hawara or descendants of nomads who came from the Arabian Peninsula after the rise of Islam. Out-migration has been a very important phenomenon in the past 20 years, and it served to alleviate the social and economic difficulties caused by a rapidly increasing population couplw an couplee lacking new sources of income. Although detailed figures are not available, Woan appears that Sohag has been sohat major source of out-migrants both nationally and internationally. Internal migrants appear to work mainly in Cairo and Alexandria in building and unskilled daily labour activities, and many of them return home during the period Carolyn and john hookup tayo spoken words lyrics peak agricultural labour demand.

    International seeeking was basically a phenomenon of the s and the s. Although most current migrants are remaining where they are, there is a trickle back phenomenon among them. In seekimg there is little new migration. Insignificant numbers of men are working seekingg Libya or elsewhere. Two districts in Sohag were considered to be richer than the others as a result of international migration since the s. Social Organization The Sohag area has a fairly homogeneous social organization. The two main population groups, the indigenous population and the Hawara live side by side in reasonable harmony, though little intermarriage takes place. The latter are sseeking descendants of the immigrants from the Arabian Peninsula whose ancestors sedking around the 15th Century.

    They include hawkers, water carriers, barbers and dancers. While long lineages were a tradition prior to the Revolution, they have since then been gradually abandoned, and no longer feature in the social structure and life of seekimg area, at least not explicitly. However they do still exist as eohag demonstrated by regular inter-family feuds. Traditional ties of family and lineage solidarity are gradually decreasing in favour of individualism under the influence of a number of factors: Each village has seeming People's Council composed of 15 to 20 elected members, who occasionally include a woman. This council meets once a week and forms the official local political power structure.

    Members are elected for six years. These councils are represented at the Seking Unit and district levels, where each lower level is represented by six members. Those elected are usually the elders ih the most influential families seekinf the village. The President of the Village Council is nominated by the Governor and a civil servant. He presides over the Village Council which is composed of other civil servants representing the Government institutions present in the village: The traditional power structure at the village level is based on extended families and their influence. The elder or sheikh of each Woman seeking couple in sohag is its leader, and the power and influence of each family is based on the size of its landownership and wealth.

    Traditionally, wealth was directly correlated with landholding, but in recent years with the impact of international migration, the situation is in the process of changing and seekinb some places tension is developing between people who have acquired wealth as migrants and who are seeking political power as a result, while traditional leaders have not always managed to add the income of migration to that of landownership. Migrants also buy land as a means towards political power as well as further enrichment. As a result there is some fluctuation in the village level power structure. At the level of the satellite villages and hamlets, traditional leaders are the representatives of the State structures, in the form of omdas, and mashaykh who are the senior members of the most influential families in each settlement.

    Life in Egyptian villages has been seeking regulated in recent decades with very little going on which is not sanctioned by the authorities. During the s, Social Development Centers were built in most villages to be the headquarters of the Community Development Organizations. These are not NGOs in the usually accepted meaning of the term, but rather officially sponsored institutions, which are registered in the Ministry of Social Affairs and which have access to Government funding. These institutions vary in their current status, some of them being active and others dormant.

    In the 16 villages surveyed, seven have a Community Development Organization, though it is unclear from the data collected how many of them are active. Four villages have a social center: In addition to these there are a number of welfare organizations, most of them connected with the religious community. Other institutions which were initiated in the s have spread to many villages. Among the 16 studied, 9 have a youth center, but none has a women's center. There are no unofficial associations, as an NGO needs to be registered with the Ministry of Social Affairs to be able to operate legally. The Agricultural Cooperative system was well developed and operated throughout the country with a hierarchy of cooperatives covering the vast majority if not all of the country's villages.

    These were responsible for the supply of subsidized inputs and with marketing of crops, and basically act as intermediaries between the farming community and the Government. The Director of the Cooperative is a civil servant appointed by the Ministry whereas its President is normally one of the elders of an important village family. Grassroots Organizations Informal groups do not exist in Sohag Governorate. No women's centers exist in any of the 16 villages studied, nor were any other NGOs reported with the exception of three welfare associations in one village. The Community Development Associations which exist in 11 villages are not all active, and they are semi-official institutions.

    The village reports do not provide any data on their current level of activity or ability to work in the interests of poor villagers. Agricultural Cooperatives exist in all villages. Membership of these cooperatives was mandatory for those farmers who had reasonable access to it, and even in satellite villages or hamlets many farmers joined. The cooperatives used to provide farmers with inputs, machinery services and credit. They also assumed the responsibility for marketing crops and supervised cropping patters which they fixed and farmers were obliged to follow.

    Cooperatives were thus in control of marketing prices as well as the cost of inputs which they exclusively distributed. This system ceased in and the system has gradually been liberalized ever since. The cooperatives lost their power and farmers can market their crops freely; however the complaint now concerns the availability and price of fertilizers which seem to have been a major problem raised by farmers interviewed, particularly those with larger holdings. Despite their history and the fact that cooperatives are considered to be part of the State structure at the local level, they are still considered important and most farmers interviewed were interested in the services provided, requesting an improvement in their quantity and quality, either with respect to inputs or to control of farm equipment.

    Access to Supporting Services and Infrastructure Access by farmers to most support services used to come through the cooperative system, and insofar as such services operate, the cooperative is still the most convenient way of reaching them. However the marketing of most inputs has now been privatized, but availability seems to be a problem. Agricultural extension services are present, though their effectiveness is considered to be far from optimal. In the 16 villages studied, all have agricultural extension agents, with a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 15 in a single village, with an average of 6 per village.

    Credit is accessible through the rural banks, which are present in every mother village, and whose director is an influential member of the community. However the high interest rates are a serious disincentive to their use, as are the difficulties of access for those who do not have collateral in the form of landholding. Youth, the landless and women all find it extremely difficult to get credit from the bank. In addition in each village cases were mentioned of people who had lost their land as a result of their inability to repay the loans taken from the bank, and therefore this form of credit is seen as problematic.

    Asphalted roads lead to almost all main villages, though satellite villages and hamlets are often served by dirt roads whose condition is in various degrees of disrepair. Land Tenure, Water Rights and Control of Common Property Resources The land tenure system in Egypt changed with the Agrarian Reform which reduced the holdings of the largest landowners and set ceilings on holdings by families [ feddan] and individuals [50 feddan]. In the Governorate there were few large landowners, their precise number is not available for this report. Sharecroppers cultivated much of this land. The Land Reform positively affected a number of beneficiaries, most of whom had been sharecroppers: Inregulations were changed to fix the rents at 22 times the land tax, and now the rent changes every 2 or 3 years; currently rents vary from LE to LE per feddan.

    Beneficiaries of the land reform have security of tenure, and their descendants can inherit and even divide the land among themselves at the death of the original landholders. They may not sell the land. In addition to the beneficiaries of the land reform, land is rented on a seasonal basis unofficially. This form of renting is unregulated and rents are much higher [LE per feddan]; tenants have no security of tenure and are little more than labourers. Land holdings are generally very small within the area irrigated by the Nile canal system, there is no available land for expansion. The only ways in which additional land could be made available for cultivation are either by expanding the canal system further into the desert area or by reclaiming land and digging wells which would be pump-operated.

    Inthe Government issued a Privatization Law which includes provision for the return of lands to the owners from the pre-Agrarian Reform period. It gives them the right to rent their land freely or to cultivate it themselves. The law is due to be implemented in Access to irrigation water from the Nile is regulated by the State. The Directorate of Irrigation is responsible for management of the irrigation system up to the tertiary canal system, the 'mesqas'. These minors as well as the field level water courses are the responsibility of the farmers, with respect to maintenance and repairs. Water from the Nile is a nationally owned and managed asset, and is distributed free.

    In the newly reclaimed lands, where water comes from wells and boreholes, control is exercised by the landowner who has invested in the drilling and equipment of the well. There are very few common assets in the studied area. Almost all land is used for construction, cultivation or infrastructures [roads, canals, drains]. In the villages studied, it was reported that up to 20 years ago common land existed: In some villages some very small areas remain, which are expected to be used for the construction of infrastructures such as schools, health or community centers. Communally-owned agricultural or grazing land is non-existent in the area. Government land, outside of the gravity irrigated area is being taken and reclaimed by individual farmers who obtain leases to exploit it as private property.

    They then have control over the output of any wells they drill and operate. Ownership of Land and Assets At the Governorate level, currently there arefarming families andlandless households. Holdings are generally small: Data on availability of production assets was collected at the village level. Agricultural machinery is generally still made available through Government Rental Stations, but privately owned machinery is also widespread. In the 16 villages studied, a total of machines were recorded, or about 34 per village, though these data are not disaggregated between different types of tractors and other machinery. Water pumps are essential for most irrigation, as canal levels are generally lower than those of the fields, and pumps have generally taken over from the traditional bullock driven water wheels: The lowest rates are for agricultural labour which varies between LE 5 and 7 for a day's work, with an average over 10 villages for which data was provided of LE 5.

    Rates for working in the building trade are slightly higher ranging from LE 7 to LE 10 per day with an average of LE 7. The gender division of labour is fairly strict, with women staying in the home and dealing with livestock, post-harvest processing and domestic activities, and rarely working in the fields. Women do however, appear to cut fodder for the livestock and some of them, the particularly poor and often heads of households, participate in field activities as wage labourers. Marketing is mostly a male activity though women are beginning to appear as sellers in rural markets.

    The annual labour cycle has peak demand in agriculture at the time of cotton planting Marchthe wheat harvest Maythe cotton harvest November and land preparation for wheat and foul beans November ; peak demand for internal migrants along the coast is in February, as well as July, August and September. Employment On the basis of the problems mentioned, of demographic data and of known work opportunities it is clear that unemployment is a major problem in the area. Unemployment was seen as a major problem for many of the social groups interviewed, particularly young men and women, both educated and illiterate.

    It is clearly also a problem for adult men, and particularly those with small holdings or landless people who have families to keep. Poverty On the basis of crop yields and prices, it is clear that a family of six people needs to have 3 feddan or more to be able to live off agriculture. The staples they cultivate feed them for at most three months a year. For survival they have to rely on additional off-farm work as labourers either in agriculture or elsewhere and many of them are involved in internal seasonal migration.

    Only those having holdings over 5 feddan can be considered to live in relative comfort. Household Structure The average household size in the Governorate as well as in the villages studied is about 5. This strongly suggests that the vast majority of households are nuclear, with parents and children and excluding grandparents. However larger houses contain more than one household, with brothers and their families sharing the same roof and facilities, even if cooking is done separately. Gender Roles and Relations As a general rule, men are responsible for activities outside the home: The reason for this is the girl, herself.

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